Signs of Abnormal Testosterone Levels and How to Test


Abnormal Testosterone

Testosterone, a pivotal hormone in the human body, influences a variety of physical and psychological functions, ranging from muscle mass and bone density to mood regulation. Abnormal testosterone levels, whether high or low, can lead to significant health issues, underlining the importance of maintaining a balance. 

Recognizing the symptoms of testosterone imbalance and understanding how to test and address these levels are crucial steps in safeguarding one’s health and well-being. As such, monitoring and managing testosterone levels becomes a vital concern for many seeking to maintain an optimal quality of life.

This article will delve into the role of testosterone in the human body, outline typical testosterone levels by age and gender, and explore the symptoms associated with both low and high testosterone levels. Furthermore, it will provide insight into the testing methods available for assessing testosterone levels and the treatments for rectifying any imbalances.

By offering a comprehensive overview of these crucial aspects, the article aims to equip readers with the knowledge needed to identify signs of abnormal testosterone levels and understand the steps they can take towards achieving hormonal balance.

The Role of Testosterone in the Human Body

Testosterone, a critical sex hormone, plays a pivotal role in the development and maintenance of various physiological traits and processes in the human body. Its influence spans from the cellular level to whole-body functions, impacting both males and females, albeit in different capacities and concentrations.

Testosterone Production in Males

In males, testosterone production primarily occurs in the testes, specifically in the Leydig cells. The synthesis of this hormone is stimulated by the luteinizing hormone, which is secreted by the pituitary gland. Testosterone production begins early in fetal development, triggered by the SRY gene on the Y chromosome around the seventh week of gestation. 

This early production leads to the development of male genitalia and other secondary sex characteristics during puberty, such as increased muscle and bone mass, deepening of the voice, and growth of body hair.

Testosterone Production in Females

While abnormal testosterone is often associated with male characteristics, it is also produced in females, mainly by the ovaries and adrenal glands, and in smaller quantities compared to males. In females, testosterone plays a crucial role in bone strength, muscle growth, and the regulation of libido. Most of the testosterone produced in the ovaries is converted into estradiol, a primary form of estrogen, which is vital for female reproductive health and bone density.

Functions of Testosterone

Testosterone’s functions are extensive and vary significantly between genders. For males, it is essential for spermatogenesis—the production of sperm—and maintaining libido. It also influences the development of male reproductive tissues, supports muscle and bone mass, and contributes to the production of red blood cells.

In females, testosterone helps in maintaining muscle strength and bone density, and enhancing libido. It is also converted into estrogen, which is necessary for various reproductive functions. During fetal development, a deficiency in testosterone can lead to incomplete development of male characteristics, a condition known as androgen insensitivity syndrome. In adults, low levels of testosterone in males can lead to symptoms such as reduced muscle mass, erectile dysfunction, and osteoporosis.

Overall, testosterone is indispensable for both sexes, influencing health, well-being, and the physiological balance of the human body. Its roles in promoting secondary sexual characteristics, supporting reproductive functions, and maintaining metabolic health underscore its importance across the lifespan.

Typical Testosterone Levels by Age and Gender

Abnormal Testosterone levels vary significantly with age and gender, impacting numerous aspects of health and development. Understanding these variations can help in assessing normal and abnormal hormonal functions.

Testosterone Levels in Children and Adolescents

For children and adolescents, testosterone levels are relatively low but increase with age. Boys aged 7 to 10 years typically have testosterone levels ranging from 1.80 to 5.68 ng/dL, while girls in the same age group have levels between 2.69 to 10.29 ng/dL. As puberty progresses, these levels rise sharply. 

By the ages of 13 to 17, boys have levels ranging from 208.08 to 496.58 ng/dL, and girls have levels from 16.72 to 31.55 ng/dL. These changes are crucial for the development of secondary sexual characteristics and the onset of reproductive capability.

Testosterone Levels in Adults

In adults, testosterone levels are generally stabilized but start to vary based on health and lifestyle. Men aged 19 years and older have testosterone levels typically between 265 to 923 ng/dL, whereas women in the same age group have significantly lower levels, ranging from 15 to 70 ng/dL. It is noted that testosterone levels peak in late teens and early adulthood, and a gradual decline begins around the age of 30, decreasing approximately 1% per year.

Factors Influencing Testosterone Levels

Several factors influence testosterone levels beyond just age and gender. Lifestyle choices, health status, and physiological changes play significant roles. For instance, obesity, diabetes, and certain medical conditions can lead to lower testosterone levels.

Conversely, maintaining a healthy weight, engaging in regular physical activity, and managing chronic conditions effectively can help sustain normal testosterone levels. Additionally, factors like stress and poor sleep have been shown to negatively impact these hormone levels.

Understanding these typical testosterone levels and the factors that influence them is essential for diagnosing and managing conditions related to hormonal imbalances. Monitoring these levels can provide insights into one’s health and prompt necessary interventions.

Symptoms of Low Testosterone Levels

Low testosterone levels, medically known as hypogonadism, can manifest through a variety of symptoms that differ notably between genders. Recognizing these signs is crucial for timely diagnosis and treatment.

Symptoms in Males

Males experiencing low testosterone levels might notice a range of specific and non-specific symptoms. Specific symptoms directly linked to low testosterone include:

  1. Reduced sex drive
  2. Erectile dysfunction
  3. Loss of body hair
  4. Less beard growth
  5. Loss of lean muscle mass
  6. Persistent fatigue
  7. Obesity
  8. Symptoms of depression

Additionally, non-specific symptoms that may be associated with low testosterone but can also be caused by other health issues include:

  • Lower energy levels and endurance
  • Poor memory and difficulty finding words
  • Poor focus
  • Decreased work performance

Other signs include shrinking testicles, hot flashes, low or zero sperm count, increased body fat, enlarged male breast tissue (gynecomastia), and decreased muscle strength and mass.

Symptoms in Females

In females, low testosterone can lead to both physical and emotional symptoms, including:

  1. Decreased sex drive
  2. Fatigue and sluggishness
  3. Muscle weakness
  4. Sleep disturbances
  5. Decreased sexual satisfaction
  6. Weight gain
  7. Fertility issues
  8. Irregular menstrual cycles
  9. Vaginal dryness
  10. Loss of bone density

These symptoms can significantly impact daily life and overall health. It is important to note that while these symptoms can indicate low testosterone, they can also be related to other medical conditions, making a thorough evaluation by a healthcare provider essential.

Symptoms of High Testosterone Levels

Symptoms of high testosterone levels can significantly vary between individuals and are notably different in males and females. Recognizing these symptoms is crucial for timely medical consultation and management.

Symptoms in Males

Males with high testosterone levels might experience a range of symptoms that affect physical, sexual, and psychological health. These include:

  1. Increased body hair, particularly on the face, back, and chest.
  2. Acne, often severe and resistant to typical treatments.
  3. Mood disturbances such as irritability, mood swings, and aggressive behavior.
  4. Physical changes like muscle mass increase and fat redistribution.
  5. Medical issues such as high blood pressure (hypertension), heart or liver problems, and swelling of the legs and feet.
  6. Sexual health changes, including high sex drive (libido) and issues like low sperm count and infertility.
  7. Prostate enlargement, potentially leading to urinary difficulties.

These symptoms not only impact the physical appearance but also the overall health, requiring careful monitoring and management.

Symptoms in Females

Females with high testosterone levels may exhibit symptoms that can be both physically and emotionally challenging. These include:

  1. Excessive body and facial hair, a condition known as hirsutism.
  2. Acne, which can be widespread and severe.
  3. Menstrual irregularities such as missed periods or unusually light periods.
  4. Physical changes like increased muscle mass and reduction in breast size.
  5. Vocal changes, such as a deepening of the voice.
  6. Emotional and psychological effects including mood swings and increased aggression.
  7. Fertility issues, often marked by difficulty conceiving due to hormonal imbalances.

In severe cases, high testosterone in females can lead to conditions like polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which may further complicate health with symptoms such as weight gain and metabolic issues.

Both males and females experiencing these symptoms should seek medical advice to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment, as these signs can lead to or indicate underlying health problems that require attention.

Testing for Testosterone Levels

Testosterone testing is a critical tool for diagnosing hormonal imbalances in both men and women. The process involves measuring the levels of testosterone in the blood, which can be indicative of various health conditions.

Types of Testosterone Blood Tests

There are several types of blood tests used to measure testosterone levels. The most common is the total testosterone test, which measures both free testosterone and the hormone bound to proteins. This test provides a comprehensive view of the hormone’s presence in the body. 

Additionally, the free testosterone test focuses only on the testosterone that is not bound to proteins, offering insights into the hormone actively available for use by the body. Another test, the bioavailable testosterone test, measures free testosterone plus the hormone that is loosely attached to albumin, a blood protein.

When to Get Tested

The ideal time for testosterone testing can depend on age and specific circumstances. For men younger than 45, it is recommended to collect blood samples in the early morning to account for diurnal variations in hormone levels. However, for men aged 45 and older, samples can be collected before 2 pm without significantly affecting the results. This flexibility helps accommodate different schedules while ensuring the accuracy of the test results.

Understanding Test Results

Interpreting testosterone test results requires careful consideration of various factors. Normal testosterone levels typically range from 300 to 1,000 ng/dL for men and 15 to 70 ng/dL for women, but these values can vary widely depending on the individual’s age, health status, and the time of day the test was conducted. It’s important to note that a single test result may not be definitive. 

Health professionals often recommend repeat testing if initial results are borderline or do not correlate well with symptoms. Moreover, results should be discussed with a healthcare provider, who can consider them in the context of overall health and symptoms to provide appropriate guidance and treatment options if necessary.

By understanding these testing procedures and results, individuals can better navigate the complexities of testosterone levels and their implications for health.

Treatments for Abnormal Testosterone Levels

Treatments for Low Testosterone

Treatment options for low testosterone, or male hypogonadism, vary based on the underlying cause and the severity of symptoms. Commonly, testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is employed to restore normal levels of the hormone and alleviate symptoms. Forms of TRT include:

  1. Testosterone Skin Gels: Applied daily to clean, dry skin, ensuring minimal transfer to others.
  2. Intramuscular Testosterone Injections: Administered into a muscle every 1 to 2 weeks, or long-acting versions every 10 weeks.
  3. Testosterone Patches: Applied daily, rotating skin sites to avoid irritation.
  4. Testosterone Pellets: Implanted under the skin every three to six months for a consistent dosage.
  5. Buccal Testosterone Tablets: Placed against the gums twice daily for quick absorption.
  6. Testosterone Nasal Gel: Applied within the nostrils three times a day.

It is crucial to undergo regular monitoring by healthcare providers to manage potential side effects and ensure effective treatment. Patients with specific health conditions such as prostate or breast cancer may not be candidates for TRT.

Treatments for High Testosterone

Managing high testosterone involves addressing the underlying causes and may include both medication and lifestyle adjustments. Treatments vary based on the source of the elevated levels:

  1. Medications:
    • Glucocorticosteroids and Metformin: Used to manage symptoms and underlying conditions like PCOS.
    • Oral Contraceptives: Effective in blocking testosterone production; however, they are not suitable for women planning pregnancy.
    • Spironolactone: Acts as an androgen blocker.
    • Steroid Synthesis Inhibitors: Such as ketoconazole for treating specific glandular disorders.
    • GnRH Analogs: Used in managing prostate cancer by reducing testosterone levels.
  2. Lifestyle Changes:
    • Weight Management and Exercise: Particularly beneficial in cases like PCOS, where insulin resistance is a factor.
    • Dietary Adjustments: Low-glycemic diets can help manage insulin levels and overall hormonal balance.
  3. Surgical Interventions:
    • In cases where tumors are the cause of increased testosterone, surgical removal of the tumor may be necessary. If cancerous, additional treatments such as chemotherapy or radiation may be required.

Patients should discuss all available treatment options with their healthcare provider to choose the most appropriate and effective strategy based on their specific condition and overall health.


Understanding the crucial role of testosterone in both male and female health underlines the importance of identifying and addressing abnormal levels. This article has traversed the landscape of testosterone’s influence on the human body, laying out the normal ranges by age and gender, alongside detailing symptoms that herald deviations. 

Through exploring methods for testing and delineating treatments suited to rectify imbalances, it equips readers with comprehensive insights into managing their hormonal health. The journey from symptom recognition to appropriate intervention not only fosters a deeper appreciation of testosterone’s significance but also empowers individuals to seek informed medical guidance.

The implications of managing testosterone levels extend beyond immediate physiological benefits, highlighting a pathway toward optimized well-being and quality of life. As the discourse on hormonal health advances, the importance of proactive management and personalized care becomes increasingly evident. 

By fostering an informed and engaged approach to health, individuals can navigate the complexities of testosterone-related issues with confidence. Encouraging further research and dialogue on this topic will continue to unravel the nuanced interplay between hormones and holistic health, ensuring that knowledge remains the cornerstone of effective health management.


  1. How can I test my testosterone levels at home? You can use an at-home testosterone test kit, which is available without a prescription. These kits typically include all necessary materials to collect a blood or saliva sample that you then send to a lab for analysis. If you’re considering testing, it’s advisable to discuss it with your healthcare provider.
  2. What are the signs of a testosterone imbalance? Signs of Testosterone Deficiency (TD) include a diminished sex drive, reduced erectile function, and loss of body hair. These symptoms are more directly associated with low testosterone levels.
  3. What is the process for getting testosterone levels checked? Checking testosterone levels involves a simple blood test, generally conducted early in the morning when testosterone levels are at their peak. Blood is drawn from a vein in your arm or finger for this test. It’s important to inform your doctor about any medications or herbal supplements you are taking as they can influence the test results.
  4. Is it possible to determine my testosterone level without a test? The only accurate way to measure your testosterone level is through a blood test. If you experience symptoms associated with low testosterone, consider consulting your healthcare provider to discuss the possibility of undergoing a testosterone level test.